Table 1

The conceptual framework is based on the works of Grant23 27 28 30

PurposeWhat is the purpose of the fee and is it acceptable to the parties involved?
VoluntarinessDoes the fee allow for an informed and voluntary response?
CharacterDoes the fee affect the individual character or institutional culture, including effects on altruism, responsibility or the intrinsic motivation to act?
FairnessIs the fee administrated fairly so that people who are similarly situated are treated alike?
EffectivenessIs the fee an effective means of achieving the goal compared with the alternatives?
Undue influenceIs the fee issued by decision-makers with legitimate authority in the sphere in which the fee is issued? Does the fee induce people to act against their better judgement or principles?