Table 1

Ways of measuring epistemic injustice at the knowledge-producer, knowledge-applied and knowledge-solicited layers

LayerPossible measurement options
Knowledge-producerIndividualHosting of cocreation workshops to develop the evaluation tools appropriate to measure epistemic justice
Power analysis study to understand mechanisms and structures that lead to injustices
Bibliometric analysis focusing on geographical and institutional location of first and senior authors
Analysis of conference agendas or webinar series to identify the geographical and institutional origin of dominant speakers
Deliberative studies to help understand whether and to what extent testimonial silencing occurs in global health ethics and quantitative studies to help understand how common these experiences are
InstitutionalSocial network analysis to reveal core and periphery institutions in global health bioethics as well as the evolution of networks over time
Studies aiming to identify factors that enable or challenge the establishment and success of bioethics centres or departments in Southern locations
JournalQualitative studies to help understand whether and how journal review processes promote epistemic (in)justice
Quantitative studies to understand the geographical locations of editors, reviewers and authors
FunderQualitative studies to investigate how priorities are set for ethics funding schemes and by whom
Deliberative study to investigate perceptions and experiences of epistemic injustice by Southern scholars
Analysis of grants awarded on topics in global health ethics, focusing on geographical and institutional locations of primary applicant(s) and coinvestigators
Analysis of ethics grant eligibility criteria to explore the extent to which they foster or reduce epistemic injustices
Knowledge-appliedCitation analysis to understand conceptual evolution in global health ethics
Analysis of grants awarded on topics in global health ethics, focusing on whether epistemologies, theories, concepts, methods or values from the global South are used
Analysis of the global health ethics literature to assess what philosophical and ethical theories are being applied by scholars
Knowledge-solicitedSystematic review(s) of empirical global health ethics literature to assess whose perspectives and experiences were solicited and whose voices are missing or marginalised
Content analyses of international ethics guidelines to determine the extent to which they draw on principles, values and concepts derived from diverse epistemic perspectives
Conversation analysis of public discussion forums or public commentaries on draft guidelines to determine the nature and location of contributors
Power analysis to understand how power differentials play out in committee discussion and decisions or outputs
Analysis of the composition of committees and working groups articulating ethics guidance relevant to global health research and governance