Table 2

Dementia-specific basic capabilities

CapabilitiesPossible external setbacksPossible external facilitators
Expression of desires or showing willInflexible dietary regimen or bathing schedule.Flexible meal options or bathing schedule.
The ability to have emotional experiences or expressionsProlonged and unnecessary use of antipsychotics to induce sedation.Active listening when people with dementia talk about their feelings.
Self-respectBelittling remarks.Engagement in activities that give people with dementia a sense of purpose.
Initiating social interactionExcessive use of physical restraint.Enabling group activities.
Affectional warmthUnwelcoming care environment.Congenial caring attitudes.
Social sensitivityDepriving people with dementia of continued social contact.Involving people with dementia in conversations to the greatest extent possible.
Accepting other people with dementiaInappropriate management of resident-to-resident aggression in nursing homes.Fostering social connectedness with and among residents in nursing homes.
HumourOverly serious and uncompromising caring environment.Providing appropriate amusement opportunities.
Creativity and self-expressionForcing people with dementia to follow strict rules when engaged in creative acts such as producing visual arts.Enabling creative activities such as painting and singing songs.
Showing evident pleasureLimited entertainment opportunities.Providing adequate entertainment opportunities such as group games.
HelpfulnessConveying an explicit or implicit message to people with dementia that they are so frail to be able to help others.Enabling fellow resident support in nursing homes to the greatest extent possible.
RelaxationLoud and chaotic care environment.Appropriate management of sleep and anxiety problems.
Bodily healthUndermanagement of pain.Providing non-pharmacological interventions as first-line treatment for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia.
Bodily integrityForcing people with dementia to take medications.Respecting dissent to take medications to the greatest extent possible.
Connecting with other speciesLimited interaction with non-human animals or limited access to green space.Providing opportunities for animal companionship or gardening.