Table 1

Comparison of ethical issues raised by genomic passports and immunity passports

Ethical issueImmunity passportGenomic passport
Incentivise infectionYes (for natural immunity)No
Privacy riskMinimal personal information collectedPotentially substantial personal information collected
Undermine solidarityPossiblePossible
Exacerbate inequalitiesPossibleLikely if based on biased data
Fairness (luck egalitarianism)No unique concernsRaises unique concerns