Table 4

Key challenges of blockchain implementation in the biomedical sciences

ChallengesPossible solutions
User-unfriendliness for identity management and user-triggered notarisation processMany possible technical solutions; testing, trial and error; collaboration
Technical implementation: choice of architectures (public vs private blockchain or hybrid choice), complex flow to be handled by smart contracts
Resistance to data sharingIncreasing autonomy through blockchain; moral arguments; policy and law
Legal aspects: Compliance with the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), hash personal data are pseudonymised data hence still personal, right to forget, Europe location for validator nodesMixing private and public blockchains; selective activation/silencing of nodes according to geographical or jurisdictional zone