Table 1

Timeline of scholarly objections to publishing of unethical transplant research

YearScholar groupRecommendation
2007Rakela and Fung9 (USA)Manuscripts submitted to the journal, Liver Transplantation, shall explicitly exclude both executed prisoners and paid organ donors.
2008Bramstedt and Xu10 (USA)Created guidelines for authors, editors and peer reviewers for organ donation and transplant manuscripts to prevent publication of unethical research.
2012Caplan et al 11 (USA) Journal of Clinical Investigation will require manuscripts about human organ transplantation in China to include an attestation that the organ sources are not executed prisoners.
2013Valapour et al 12 (USA)(1) Limit publishing of transplant research involving prisoners, in general and (2) ban publishing of transplant research involving executed prisoners.
2017Editorial Board13 American Journal of Transplantation refuses to publish articles if the data are derived from an executed prisoner.
2017Editorial Board14 Transplantation Direct requires that all procedures and studies described in manuscript submissions ‘have involved no illegal commercial transactions, the use of organs or other material from executed prisoners, or other unethical practices in obtaining donor organs’.
2017Editorial Board15 Transplantation requires that all procedures and studies described in manuscript submissions ‘have involved no illegal commercial transactions, the use of organs or other material from executed prisoners, or other unethical practices in obtaining donor organs’.
2019Editorial Board16 Journal of Healrt and Lung Transplantation refuses to publish articles if the data are derived from an executed prisoner.
2019Bramstedt and Xu17
(Luxembourg, Australia, USA)
Chinese journals should have rules that exclude data sourced from unethical organ donation and transplantation.
2019Rogers et al 18 (Australia, USA, New Zealand)Published papers containing unethical transplant research should be retracted.
2020Higgins et al 1 (Australia, Singapore, New Zealand)Supports the retraction of Chinese transplant research that uses organs procured from non-consenting executed prisoners, including prisoners of conscience.