Table 2

Disentanglement of organoids

Step 1: Tissue donation and consentThe donation of human biological material for the generation of organoids and consent for the generation, biobank storage and use of organoids.
Step 2: Technological transformationThe generation of organoids out of the human biological material (eg, adult stem or progenitor cells, iPSCs, hESCs). The technological transformation can be seen as a patentable intervention.
Step 3: AnonymisationThe pseudonymisation or complete deidentification of organoids.
Step 4: CommodificationThe different mechanisms to commodify organoids, such as the establishment of intellectual property rights, price setting for access and use by commercial parties (eg, pharmaceutical companies).
Step 5: DistributionThe national or international distribution of organoids to academic and for-profit parties.
  • hESCs, human embryonic stem cells; iPSCs, induced pluripotent stem cells.