Table 2

Potential ethical concerns about attempting fertility preservation surgery in prepubertal children

Before/at time of surgeryIn future
Delay to cancer treatmentImpact of surgery on future gonadal function
Family’s comprehension that process is largely unproven for prepubertal tissueOngoing cost to family of tissue storage
Decreased quality of tissue due to previous gonadotoxic therapyReseeding the original disease when tissue reimplanted
False hope about child’s chances of survivalFate of tissue if child dies
Surgical and anaesthetic risks, sometimes increased by comorbiditiesPressure on patient to use tissue
Child’s discomfort/distressFalse hope about likelihood of pregnancy
Degree of risk to fertility from treatmentHealth of offspring conceived