Table 1

Summary of Kamin’s guide to codes of five critical-thinking stages

Stage 1: Problem identification
New information
NPdNew problem-related information
NPsRepeating information that has already been said
NIdAsking for information not yet provided
NIsComplaining or repeatedly asking for information that cannot be provided
Stage 2: Problem description
Clarifying/agreeing on terms/concepts
AdDiscuss ambiguities or facts to clear them up; push limits of knowledge
AIsIgnoring or exhibiting impatience with ambiguities or asking facilitator to be content expert
AIdIdentify what the group/individual needs to know, including admitting when the answer is unknown and agreeing which phenomena require explanation
Bringing outside knowledge experience to bear on problem
OEdDrawing on personal experience
OEsDrawing on irrelevant personal experience, distracting group from case
Stage 3: Problem exploration
Linking ideas, interpretation
LdLinking facts or ideas
LsRepeating information without making inferences/offering an interpretation
LTdInterpretation of data
LVdInterpretation of data (on video)
JHdDevelop working hypotheses
JHsUnwilling to explore other possible solutions/explanations for problem
JSdJustifying hypotheses or orders/action by providing examples or explaining
JPsIrrelevant or obscuring justification for hypotheses; agreeing without adding any comments
Stage 4: Applicability
PdDiscuss practical utility/concerns about approach to patient or treatment
PsSuggest impractical orders/treatment
Stage 5: Integration/critical assessment
LIdSynthesis of learning issues and application to problem; link findings after self-study to hypotheses; generalise to broader application
LIsReport learning issue with no synthesis or relation to problem.
CdStudent provides self- or peer assessment.
CsStudent is superficial or unwilling to assess self or peers
  • Based on: Kamin et al.25

  • Note: d, deep; s, surface.