Table 3

Coping/evasive strategies and corresponding phases in Kamin’s model

Strategy—phase typeStrategyCorresponding phases in Kamin’s model
Coping—deep Deepening dilemmas Stage 2: discussing ambiguities (Ad)
Stage 3: linking relevant facts (Ld), interpreting text or video (LTd, LVd)
Reframing dilemmas Stage 2: discussing Ad
Stage 3: linking relevant facts (Ld), justification for stance (JSd)
Information seeking Stage 1: new information provided (NPd), new information sought (NId)
Stage 2: discussing Ad, admitting the answer is unknown (AId)
Exploring additional considerations Stage 3: linking relevant facts (Ld), justification for stances (JHd, JSd)
Stage 4: exploring practical solutions (Pd)
Stage 5: performing overall synthesis (LId)
Familiarisation Stage 2: drawing on personal experience (OEd)
Evasive—shallow Denial or reduction of dilemmas Stage 2: ignoring/exhibiting impatience with dilemmas (AIs)
Stage 3: not willing to explore other possible explanations (JHs)
Offering an easy solution Stage 4: offering impractical solution (Ps)
Ignoring tutor’ s questions or referring to irrelevant information Stage 1: asking for information that cannot be provided (NIs), asking for information that has already been said (NPs)
Stage 2: drawing on irrelevant personal experience (OEs)
Stage 3: lack of inferences from information
Stage 5: lack of synthesis (Ls)
  Refusing to discuss dilemmasStage 3: unwillingness to explore other solutions/explanations for the problem (JHs), irrelevant or obscuring justification for students’ stances (JPs)
Seeking contrasting/illogical information Stage 1: complaining (NIs)
Stage 5: unwillingness to assess oneself (Cs)