TableĀ 1

Ethical framework for monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of public health programmes

Phase of M&EEthical questionLevel of interventionRecommended intervention
Engagement of stakeholders1. Are there conflicts of interest?Institutional levelConsider external evaluation
Disclosure of conflicts of interest
Observe organisational, legal and other codes
2. Is the process of selection of stakeholders transparent?Institutional levelDisclose criteria for selection of stakeholders
3. Is the methodology for sample selection realistic and unbiased?Institutional levelDisclose criteria for the choice of methodology and explain its logic
4. Is there equity in the selection of stakeholders?Community levelDisclose criteria for including stakeholders and how equity has been achieved
Selection of women, members of marginalised communities, persons with disabilities, etc
5. Are stakeholders being empowered as a result of being selected?Institutional levelEncourage stakeholders to participate actively in meetings, encourage contributions to discussions, and engage stakeholders in decision making
Treat stakeholders with candour and honesty
Setting objectives, selecting indicators and planning methodology of M&E6. Are the selected objectives, indicators and methodology feasible and relevant?Institutional levelKeep cost effectiveness in mind
Community levelEncourage community to participate in decision making
7. Does the objective, indicator and methodology planning process empower the stakeholders and the community?Community levelInvolve stakeholders in the process
Engage in negotiations with stakeholders about appropriate objectives, indicators and methodology
8. Is the process of objective, indicators and methodology selection transparent?Institutional levelDisplay the objectives, indicators and methodology of the evaluation to all members of the stakeholders
Justify to the stakeholders reasons for choosing the specific objective, indicators and methodology
Community levelInform community about the process of objective, indicator and methodology selection
Data collection9. Does the process of data collection respect the individuals?Institutional level
Community level
Training field workers on respecting individuals during data collection
Obtain informed consent by providing the respondents with enough information along with the option to participate or not in the exercise
10. Does the process of data collection maintain privacy and confidentiality of the respondents?Institutional levelRemove personal identifications from data files
Protect data with passwords for data bases, hard copy protection and limiting access to eligible persons only
Anonymity and confidentiality of the respondents must be maintained in data processing, analysing and report writing processes
11. Does the process of data collection demonstrate responsibility to the community?Community levelEmphasise reporting of mishaps, malpractices and wrongdoing
Provide for suitable and well-tiered supervision and checks
Work with service motive
12. Does data collection empower the field workers and the community?Institutional levelTraining and capacity building of field workers
Community levelRespond to participant's questions and doubts. Clarify the agenda of the M&E. Encourage participation of the community
13. Does the data collection process follow least intrusion and non-judgemental attitudes towards respondents?Community levelLeast intrusion into the lives of the respondents. Development of tolerance and non-judgemental attitude
Data analysis, interpretation, reporting and sharing of results14. Is the data analysis, interpretation, reporting and sharing process impartial?Community levelEnsure that data from all sections of the community have been considered for analysis. Ensure specifically that opinions of women, children, persons with disabilities and marginalised communities are given voice
15. Are complete and honest data analysis, interpretation, reporting and sharing performed at the end of the M&E process?Institutional levelFull disclosure of all results
Special emphasis on data collected using open-ended questions or through other qualitative methods
16. Does the process of data analysis, interpretation, reporting and sharing of results demonstrate community accountability?Institutional levelFormation of accountability mechanisms such as community monitoring groups
Accountability meetings with community to share the results and information
Utilisation of results17. Is adequate feedback provided to the programme managers, stakeholders, community representatives and the community at all stages?Institutional and community levelsThere should be a cross cutting mechanism for providing feedback to the relevant stakeholders at all levels of the process of M&E
18. Are the results of the M&E used appropriately and in a timely manner?Institutional levelThe results should be used for constructive action on the programme
Reciprocity should be enabled
Dissemination to all stakeholders including a wider general audience who might be interested