Table 3

Understanding of research nature and purpose*

Developed country studiesDeveloping country studies
AuthorCountryUnderstood purposeAuthorCountryUnderstood purpose
Knifed et al, 200838Canada100%Leach et al, 199933The Gambia90%
Ravina et al, 201036USA92.6%Pace et al, 200528Thailand88%
Franck et al, 200740UK85%Minnies et al, 200824South Africa80.6%
Howard et al, 198163USA80%Pace et al, 200529Uganda80%
Miller et al, 199458USA73%Kaewpoonsri et al, 200625Thailand50%
Van Stuijvenberg et al, 199853The Netherlands53%Sarkar et al, 200921India43%
Marshall et al, 200619USA41%Marshall et al, 200619Nigeria39%
Benson et al, 198560USA37% each in depression and schizophrenia studiesKrosin et al, 200626Mali26%
Daugherty et al, 200050USA31%Joubert et al, 200331South Africa28%, but 40% knew the substance being tested was vitamin A
Harth et al, 199556Australia13%
Riecken et al, 198262USA10%
Developed country studiesDeveloping country studies
AuthorCountryUnderstood natureAuthorCountryUnderstood nature
Knifed et al, 200838Canada100%Ekouevi et al, 200430Côte d'Ivoire95%–100%
Criscione et al, 200344USA100%Moodley et al, 200527South Africa95%
Hietanen et al, 200051Finland100%Minnies et al, 200824South Africa85.4% knew was research; 36.7% knew there were no immediate benefits
Lynöe et al, 199159Sweden98%Vallely et al, 201020Tanzania77% knew gel may not prevent HIV
Howard et al, 198163USA92%Hill et al, 200823Ghana75% knew was research, but 93% thought trial capsules were a ‘medicine or vitamin’
Ravina et al, 201036USA89% understood drugs were experimentalLynöe et al, 200132Bangladesh47%
Ellis 201018USA85%Krosin et al, 20062626%
Penman et al, 198461USA78%
Gammelgaard et al, 200441Denmark72%
Riecken et al, 198262USA72%
Bergenmar et al, 200837Sweden∼70%
Kupst et al, 200345USA55%
Schats et al, 200347The Netherlands38%
Joffe et al, 200149USA30%
  • * Arranged from highest to lowest %.

  • Yet only 57% knew that participation in the study was not part of usual Parkinson's disease treatment.

  • ACHRE, Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments.