Table 4

Understanding of risks and side effects*

Developed country studiesDeveloping country studies
AuthorCountryUnderstood risks or side effectsAuthorCountryUnderstood risks or side effects
Daugherty et al, 200050USA100% named >1 side effectPace et al, 200528Thailand98% recognised side effects
Harrison et al, 199555USA89% recognised side effectsPitisuttithum et al, 199735Thailand97% recognised side effects
Knifed et al, 200838Canada71% knew at least one general riskMinnies et al, 200824South Africa79.2% knew risks
Benson et al, 198560USADepression study: 62% knew risksLeach et al, 199933The Gambia53% named ≥1 side effect
Schizophrenia study: 42% knew risks
Howard et al, 198163USA61% could name 1 side effectOduro et al, 200822Ghana20% knew direct risks
Miller et al, 199458USA48% named and 86% recognised >1 riskPace et al, 200529Uganda18% named 1 or more side effects
Ravina et al, 201036USA47% knew which drugs had highest risks, 93% knew PD could get better, worse or not changeKrosin et al, 200626Mali7% said there were side effects
Estey et al, 199457Canada41% named >1 riskKaewpoonsri et al, 200625Thailand6.6% recalled being told of risks
Van Stuijvenberg et al, 199853The Netherlands40% knew side effects
Joffe et al, 200149USA37% knew research risks
Penman et al, 198461USA31% named >3 of 11 risks
Criscione et al, 200344USA30% knew there were risks§
Bergler et al, 198064USA28% (at start), 3% (3 months later)
Bergenmar et al, 200837Sweden18% knew research risks
Schats et al, 200347The Netherlands6% knew side effects
  • * Arranged from highest to lowest.

  • 29% did not recall ANY risks of the trial drug, the rest of the participants could name general risks, and at most participants could name up to four specific risks or side effects.

  • The question was complex and multi-choice. The correct answer was the only one that included a mention of side effects. However, it also included information about the potential benefits of the medicine (eg, that it could prevent malaria and correct other health problems).

  • § But were not asked to name or identify them.

  • PD, Parkinson's disease.