Table 6

Voluntariness: knew could withdraw or refuse*

Developed country studiesDeveloping country studies
AuthorCountryKnew could withdrawAuthorCountryKnew could withdraw
Joffe et al, 200149USA90%; 99% knew could refuseEllis et al, 201018Mali96% of adults
93% of parents
Ellis et al, 201018USA98%Karim et al, 199834South Africa93% of evaluation study group, 88% of sensitisation control group
Ravina et al, 201036USA98% felt ‘free to refuse to participate’Pitisuttithum et al, 199735Thailand88% knew could refuse
Marshall et al, 200619USA97%Moodley et al, 200527South Africa87%
Criscione et al, 200344USA96%Pace et al, 200528Thailand71%
Benson et al, 198560USADepression study: 95%; 75% knew could refuse. Schizophrenia study: 83%; 75% knew could refuseMarshall et al, 200619Nigeria67%
Minnies et al, 200824South Africa65%
Bergenmar et al, 200837Sweden93%; 100% knew could refusePace et al, 200529Uganda65%; 41% knew could refuse
Franck et al, 200740UK91%Kaewpoonsri et al, 200625Thailand53.1%
Van Stuijvenberg et al, 199853The Netherlands91%Lynöe et al, 200132Bangladesh48%: 65% knew could refuse
Lynöe et al, 200443Sweden90%Sarkar et al, 200921India50%
Simon et al, 200348USA90% of majority English speakersEkouevi et al, 200430Côte d'Ivoire27%
78% of minority English speakersJoubert et al, 200331South Africa24% (but 92% said care would no longer be good if they quit)
60% of minority non-English speakersOduro et al, 200822Ghana21%
Montgomery et al, 199852UK83%Krosin et al, 200626Mali10%
Penman et al, 198461USA80%
Riecken et al, 198262USA80%; 95% knew could refuse
ACHRE, 199654USA78%
Bergler et al, 198064USA77% (at start), 61% (3 months later)
Harth et al, 199556Australia45% (but 32% said would not be allowed)
Schats et al, 200347The Netherlands25%; 59% knew could refuse
  • * Arranged from highest to lowest %.

  • However, 98% of the evaluation study group and 100% of the sensitisation control group said hospital would not allow them.

  • Knew participation was not obligatory.

  • ACHRE, Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments.