Table 1

Interests of the child (considered in this paper) with regard to infant circumcision

Circumcise infant body (costs)Do not circumcise infant body (costs)
Violation of interest in bodily integritySlight increase in risk of serious medical problems (severe penile cancer, HIV, genital ulcer disease)
Violation of interest in self-determinationSlight increase in risk of minor medical problems (urinary tract infection)
Reduction in sexual pleasureExtra costs that the boy has to bear if he eventually chooses to be circumcised (anticipatory dread, added risk of complications, disruption of life)
Pain
Risks of medical complications (from circumcision as well as increase in urethritis)