Table 1

Comparison of articles for which a retraction notice was available and the reason for retraction could be determined (known) versus articles for which a retraction notice was unavailable or the reason for retraction could not be determined (unknown)

Known reasonsUnknown reasonsχ2 or t valuep Value
MeanSDMeanSD
Sample (n)74246
Journal impact factor7.019.080.911.194.556<0.001
Repeat offenders, n (%)205 (27.6)5 (10.9)6.223<0.05
No of authors per paper5.113.294.372.511.501NS
Months to retraction24.2321.5316.7319.332.317<0.05