Table 1 Agents of retraction of scientific articles, and reasons for retraction
VariableBudd’s study1(n = 235)Present study(n = 315)
Agent of retraction (per cent)
    All authors8148
    Some authors19
Primary reason for retraction (per cent)
    Research error3922
    Inability to reproduce1620
    Research misconduct37†17
    No reason given12
  • – Category not used.

  • *Attorney, editor, sponsor, institutional official often with author, or not clear.

  • †Includes presumed misconduct and may include plagiarism.