Table 1

 Examples of codes

IssuesIncurable or dying patient disagreement
Refusal of intervention
Problematic proxy
Uncertainty  About the best goal  About decision-making capacity
Problematic requests  For futile treatment  For silence  For assisted death
Handling information  Communication  Confidentiality  Truth telling
Lack of knowledge/limits of medicine
Resource allocation
Intrusion of outsiders into decision making
Problems with colleagues
Conflict with rules or regulations
Conflict of interest
Refusal of intervention
ValuesDoing what is best  For the patient  For the family
Respect for the patient’s self-determination
Respect for individuality
Patient advocacy
Defending life
Truth telling  To the patient  To the family  To others
Duty to care for all
Avoid causing harm
Maintaining physician–patient relationship
Resource stewardship
Preventing abuse
Maintaining integrity
Compliance with rules and regulations
Maintaining collegiality
Protecting safety