Table 2

 The four subscales of the Ideal Patient Autonomy Scale (IPAS)

Scale I Doctor knows best: α = 0.83 (surgeons: α = 0.59; patients: α = 0.70)
16. If doctor and patient cannot agree on which treatment is best, the doctor should make the treatment decision.
4. It is better that the doctor rather than the patient decides which is the best treatment.
12. During the conversation, the patient must submit himself with confidence to the expertise of the doctor.
20. The doctor can presume that the patient knows that people can die during serious operations.
18. The patient should, without much information on the risk involved, confidently undergo an operation.
Scale II Patient should decide: α = 0.62 (surgeons: α = 0.62; patients: α = 0.63)
13. The patient himself must choose between the various treatments.
21. If a patient chooses a treatment with more health risks, the doctor should respect this treatment decision.
19. It goes too far when the doctor decides which treatment is best for the patient.
22. As it concerns the body and life of the patient, the patient should decide.
Scale III Right to non-participation: α = 0.66 (surgeons: α = 0.57; patients: α = 0.59)
3. If the patient does not want to receive information about risks, the doctor should respect this.
15. Patients who become afraid when thinking about the treatment decision should be left in peace by the doctor.
11. Patients should have the right not to be involved in the decision on the treatment.
Scale IV Obligatory risk information: α = 0.63 (surgeons: α = 0.54; patients: α = 0.54)
5. The patient has to be informed on all the risks involved in an operation.
14. Before a patient consents to a treatment he should receive all information on the risks involved.