Appendix 1

Original patient autonomy questionnaire

Normative statementAutonomy concept*Retained in final questionnaire
*I, actual identification; LJ, legal liberal; LI, liberal individualism; PI, procedural independence (critical reflection); NC, negotiated consent; SA, Socratic autonomy (existential fragility); as classified independently by two researchers (AMS, ACM).
1. The doctor must choose the treatment with the least health risk, even when the patient wants a treatment with more health risks.LJNo
2. It is good if the patients asks the doctor critical questions.LI, NCNo
3. If the patient does not want to receive information about risks, the doctor should respect this.LI, NCYes
4. It is better that the doctor rather than the patient decides which the best treatment is.LJ, SA, PIYes
5. The patient has to be informed on all the risks involved in an operation.LJ, LIYes
6. The doctor should not only pay attention to the medical aspects; he or she should also pay attention to the personal experiences of the patient.I, SANo
7. If doctor and patient properly consult with each other, it does not matter who takes the final decision.NC, I, SA, PISee Discussion
8. Every patient is obliged to actively think about the appropriate treatment.LI, NC, INo
9. If patients do not understand something they should tell their doctor this.NC, PINo
10. It goes too far when patients themselves have to decide which treatment is best for them.PI, SANo
11. Patients should have the right not to be involved in the decision on the treatment.PI, SAYes
12. During the conversation, the patient must submit himself with confidence to the expertise of the doctor.PI, SAYes
13. The patient himself must choose between the various treatments.LIYes
14. Before a patient consents to a treatment he should receive all information on the risks involved.LJYes
15. Patients who become afraid when thinking about the treatment decision should be left in peace by the doctor.SA, PIYes
16. If doctor and patient cannot agree on which treatment is best, the doctor should take the final decision.LJ, LIYes
17. Before the decision on the appropriate treatment is taken, the goals and wishes of the patient must be clearly known.NC, SA, INo
18. The patient should, without much information on the risk involved, confidently undergo an operation.PI, SAYes
19. It goes too far when the doctor decides which treatment is best for the patient.LI, LJYes
20. The doctor can presume that the patient knows that people can die during serious operations.LJ, PIYes
21. If a patient chooses a treatment with more health risks, the doctor should respect this treatment decision.LI, LJYes
22. As it concerns the body and life of the patient, the patient should decide.LI, IYes