Table 2

Characteristics that make acting according to patient’s choice more likely (+) or less likely (−); p value according to the Mann-Whitney rank sum test, mentioned if p</=0.05

Diagnosis desired (case 1)Prognosis desired (case 2)Diagnosis not desired (case 3)Prognosis not desired (case 4)
Bold: all medical and law students included; normal (not bold): concerning either law or medical students.
Group M1 : 64 medical students at the end of their 5th year in 1996.
Group M2 : 63 medical students at the beginning of their 5th year in 1996.
Group L1 : 75 first to fourth year law students from an “international law” lecture in 1996.
Group L2 : 93 mostly first year law students from a “law and medicine” lecture in 1996.
Group L1 (as compared to group L2)0.01−0.009−
Group M1 (as compared to group M2)0.02+0.03+
Medical students (comp. to Law stud.)0.0003−0.0004+<0.0001+
Ethical training <0.0001−0.004+<0.0001+
    Law students: ethical training0.009−0.004+
    Medical students: ethical training0.03+0.03−
Age >22 0.008−0.0008+0.001+
Age >24 0.01+
    Medical students: age >240.05+
Swiss 0.03+
    Law students: Swiss0.006+0.03−
    Medical students: Swiss
Southern Europe 0.05−
    Law students: Southern Europe
    Medical students: Southern Europe0.05−
Northern Europe 0.04+0.01+
    Law students: Northern Europe0.01+0.02+
    Medical students: Northern Europe0.04+
Islam 0.02−
    Law students: Islam0.02−
    Medical students: Islam
Religiously active (all religions) 0.03−
    Law students: religiously active
    Medical students: religiously active
Father university education 0.01+
    Law students: father university education0.03+
    Medical students: father university education
Father baccalaureate 0.03+
    Law students: father baccalaureate
    Medical students: father baccalaureate
Mother baccalaureate 0.005+
    Law students: mother baccalaureate0.03+
    Medical students: mother baccalaureate