Table 1

 Perceived prevalence of scientific misconduct

Type of misconductnFrequently (%)Occasionally (%)Seldom (%)Never (%)
Plagiarism16200.25.227.766.9
Falsifying data16310.54.024.271.3
Intentional protocol violations related to subject enrolment16341.27.526.864.5
Intentional protocol violations related to procedures16361.29.132.557.2
Coercion of potential subjects16341.24.320.773.7
Deliberate double billing for study procedures16230.62.39.188.0
Selective dropping of data from “outlier” cases16280.73.715.380.3
Falsification of biosketch, resume, reference list16330.11.711.986.3
Disagreements about authorship16031.59.728.959.8
Pressures from a study sponsor (eg, pharmaceutical company or device company) to engage in unethical practices16320.34.020.575.2