Table 1

Questionnaire and responses

YesNoUnsureNA (no answer)
1. Have you been an author on a paper for which any of the authors had not made a sufficient contribution to warrant credit for the work? 721202
2. Has your name ever been omitted from a paper for which you had made a substantial contribution? 581333
3. Do you have firsthand knowledge of scientists or doctors intentionally altering or fabricating data for the purpose of publication? 211721
4. Since entering medical school have you:
A) cheated to improve a test grade? 41900
B) modified research or experimental results to improve the outcome? 41891
C) reported research or experimental results which you knew to be untrue? 21920
D) plagiarised the work of someone else? 21920
5. If it would expedite publication of your work, would you be willing to:
A) fabricate data? 0191 30
B) omit data to fit your hypothesis? 3174170
6. If it would enhance a grant application, would you be willing to:
A) fabricate data? 1189 31
B) select or omit data to fit your hypothesis? 8167192
7. Do you feel it is necessary to publish papers in order to further your career?116 66120
8. Have you ever received any training in research ethics? 331610
9. Do you think more resources and time should be spent investigating possible research fraud? 83 33780