Table 2

Why redundant publications occur

Percentage who agree
ReasonEditors (N=71)Authors (N=64)
*The percentage of respondents who answered “don’t know” to the question was between 10% and 20%.
Journals:do not do enough to publicise, criticise, and punish cases68*72
do not do enough to identify cases during peer review4966
do not publish a clear definition3442
do not think the issue is serious613
Authors:feel pressure to amass publications7594
do not understand how cases distort the aggregation of data (for example, in systematic reviews or meta-analyses)5870
want to disseminate their research as widely as possible5469
do not think the issue is serious5153
Academic leaders:do not publicly condemn the practice4869
do not think the issue is serious2538*