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‘Recombining’ biological motherhoods. Towards two ‘complete’ biological mothers
  1. Emanuele Mangione
  1. Medicine and Surgery, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy
  1. Correspondence to Dr Emanuele Mangione, Medicine and Surgery, University of Insubria, Varese 21100, Italy; emangione{at}


Within feminist literature from the early 1970s to this day, assisted reproductive technologies have been largely known to divide, replace or eliminate biological motherhood. For example, while in the past biological motherhood was considered a continuous experience, in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and IVF using egg donation allowed a split between two biological mothers, one providing eggs (genetic mother) and the other one gestation (gestational mother). This split was considered irreparable: the genetic mother could not be also gestational, and vice versa. On the contrary, this paper aims to show that assisted reproductive technologies may also have a constructive potential towards biological motherhood(s). To explain how it could be possible, two existing techniques are explored: the first is maternal spindle transfer, which allows a double genetic motherhood; the second is reciprocal effortless IVF, which supposedly enables a double gestational motherhood. While in the first part, these techniques are examined singularly, in the second part a feasible combination of them is speculated. The idea is that assisted reproductive technologies could ‘recombine’ genetic and gestational motherhood in two figures that include both, namely in two ‘complete’ biological mothers, both genetic and gestational.

  • Feminism
  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Women
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Fertilization in Vitro

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  • Contributors The author (E Mangione) received no financial support for the research, authorship and/or publication of this article.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.