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Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding the status of ‘animal ingredients in medicines’ among medical professionals in a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai: a cross-sectional survey
  1. Mangal M Jain,
  2. Karan Thakkar
  1. Department of Pharmacology, Grant Medical College and Sir J J Group of Hospitals, Mumbai, India
  1. Correspondence to Dr Karan Thakkar, Department of Pharmacology, Grant Medical College and Sir J J Group of Hospitals, Mumbai 400 008, Maharashtra, India; karan_thkkr{at}

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Introduction and objectives

Doctors generally do not discuss the way drugs are manufactured, the source of raw materials and the process of labelling, packing and transport of the drugs for the use of consumers.

A close scrutiny of the process of manufacturing medicinal drugs and chemicals reveals that a significant number of drugs contain animal ingredients (either directly or indirectly).

This research was designed to address the following questions:

  1. Current level of physician knowledge about animal ingredients in medicine and the existing rules and regulations about the same.

  2. The assumptions and attitudes held by physicians about animal ingredients in medicines.

  3. Current practices with respect to the use of medicines containing animal ingredients. …

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  • Competing interests None.

  • Ethics approval Ethics approval was provided by the Institutional Ethics Committee, Grant Medical College, Mumbai.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.