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Stop the bleeding: we must combat explicit as well as implicit biases affecting women surgeons

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  • Contributors BBS is the sole author of this commentary.

  • Funding This study was funded by Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics Hecht-Levi Fellowship in Bioethics.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

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