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The morality of risks in research: reflections on Kumar
  1. F M Kamm
  1. Correspondence to Professor F M Kamm, Harvard Kennedy School, 79 JFK Street, Cambridge MA 02138, USA; frances_kamm{at}


Reflecting on the contribution by Rahul Kumar to the symposium, I consider the following topics in relation to risks in research: (1) treating someone as a mere means; (2) aggregation; (3) different conceptions of contractualism; (4) uncertainty; (5) paternalism and complicity.

  • Ethics

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  • Funding Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (1 R01 AI114617-01A1) and 1 R56 AI114617-01.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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