Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Clinical use of placebo treatments may undermine the trust of patients: a response to Gold and Lichtenberg
  1. Pekka Louhiala1,
  2. Harri Hemilä1,
  3. Raimo Puustinen2
  1. 1Hjelt Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
  2. 2School of Medicine, University of Tampere, Tamepre, Finland
  1. Correspondence to Dr Pekka Louhiala, Hjelt Institute, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 41, Helsinki 00014, Finland; pekka.louhiala{at}


There is an obvious need for a critical discussion of the concepts ‘placebo’ and ‘placebo effect’. In a recent paper on the use of placebos in clinical medicine, Gold and Lichtenberg note the conceptual difficulties but use the terminology in a confused way throughout their paper. In our response, we demonstrate these problems with a few examples from their paper.

  • Clinical Ethics

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.

Other content recommended for you