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You cannot have your normal functioning cake and eat it too


Does biomedical enhancement challenge justice in health care? This paper argues that health care justice based on the concept of normal functioning is inadequate if enhancements are widespread. Two different interpretations of normal functioning are distinguished: the “species typical” vs. the “normal cooperator” account, showing that each version of the theory fails to account for certain egalitarian intuitions about help and assistance owed to people with health needs, where enhancements are widespread.

  • Allocation of Health Care Resources
  • Concept of Health
  • Distributive Justice
  • Enhancement
  • Genethics

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