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Animals in medical training and research: transforming perceptions in medical schools, India
  1. A A Khobragade1,
  2. K B Thakkar1,
  3. G V Billa2,
  4. S B Patel1,
  5. B N Vallish1,
  6. S Kosale1
  1. 1Department of Pharmacology, Grant Medical College and Sir J J Group of Hospitals, Mumbai, India
  2. 2Department of Pharmacology, Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
  1. Correspondence to Dr Karan B Thakkar, Department of Pharmacology, Grant Medical College and Sir J J Group of Hospitals, Mumbai 400008, India; karan_thkkr{at}

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Experimental research on animals has been guided by principles of the three Rs: reduction, refinement and replacement.1 Recently the fourth R—rehabilitation—has also been incorporated to enhance the welfare of animals that are used in research. With growing scientific curiosity and increasing research, animal use has anything but reduced despite the fact that modern technology has brought to fore many alternatives to animal use.2 ,3 There are many arguments for and against animal use. In India, there has been a proposal to ban the use of animals for training and academic purposes, as reported in two major daily newspapers. This has evoked mixed reactions from the scientific community. We conducted this study to assess the awareness, attitudes and practices regarding the use of animals and their alternatives, in medical training and research amongst medical teachers and students.

Study design

A …

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