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Should we enhance animals?
  1. S Chan
  1. Correspondence to S Chan, Institute for Science, Ethics and Innovation, and Centre for Social Ethics and Policy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK; sarah.chan{at}


Much bioethical discussion has been devoted to the subject of human enhancement through various technological means such as genetic modification. Although many of the same technologies could be, indeed in many cases already have been, applied to non-human animals, there has been very little consideration of the concept of “animal enhancement”, at least not in those specific terms. This paper addresses the notion of animal enhancement and the ethical issues surrounding it. A definition of animal enhancement is proposed that provides a framework within which to consider these issues; and it is argued that if human enhancement can be considered to be a moral obligation, so too can animal enhancement.

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  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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