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To have or to be: ways of caregiving identified during recovery from the earthquake disaster in Taiwan
  1. H-H Chiang1,
  2. Z-Y Lu2,
  3. S E Wear3
  1. 1Faculty of Nursing, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
  2. 2Institute of Community Health Nursing, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
  3. 3Center for Clinical Ethics and Humanities, State University of New York at Buffalo, NY, USA
  1. Correspondence to:
 Hsien-Hsien Chiang
 Associate Professor, Faculty of Nursing, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Li-Nong St Sec. 2, Pai Tou, Taipei, Taiwan 112;


The aim of this article is to report the results of therapy sessions conducted with survivors of an earthquake that struck Luku Township in Nantou County, central Taiwan, in September 1999. The sessions explored survivors’ feelings, interactions, and interpretations of the crisis, as well as their roles in post-earthquake relief efforts. The participants were teachers and administrators from four primary schools. The results indicated three distinct forms of caring, namely: encumbered caring, connected caring, and reflected caring. The findings were used to construct a framework for caregiver self-monitoring. They also suggest that therapy groups provide an inner space that self-regulates the frustrations arising from this type of experience, for both caregivers and survivors. The intrasubjective and intersubjective dialogues within the groups are essentially reflective practices for improving services and generating new knowledge about medical ethics.

  • caregiving
  • earthquake disaster
  • intersubjectivity
  • Taiwan
  • therapeutic groups

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  • The authors thank the National Science Council (ROC) (NSC89-2314-B-010-459) for partial funding for this project.